The Habsburg Renewal, Otto von Habsburg

He was born into a world where the rule of dynasties, including his own, was unquestionable. By the time of his death, the position of monarchies in the world had undergone huge changes and he was never given the chance of being crowned Emperor and King.

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The Hungarian political elite and the outbreak of World War I

The Hungarian political history of the outbreak of World War I is a thoroughly researched area in Hungarian historical science.[2] One cannot expect huge surprises; there are no secrets yet to be uncovered, and it is not likely that new and formerly unknown, nevertheless relevant pieces of knowledge can be discovered.

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The lost golden age of Hungary

The expression “golden age” carries a variety of meanings. Originally, it was used in Greek mythology. The golden age was the era of harmony among the gods. It was the age ruled by Khronos, the god of time. People were not yet envious or greedy, and violence was an unknown phenomenon. They needed no laws, nor did they have to struggle to make a living. The concept of the golden age appears in other cultures as well. The Hindus mark time with this concept.

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National delirium

In the whole of Europe, the summer of 1914 was about whether there would be a war or not. When it turned out that the weapons would go off, the society and political elite of every participating country were pervaded by enthusiasm for the war. All over Europe, even those social democrats that had previously been expressly against an armed conflict joined those who faithfully supported the war.

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Central Europe’s Cultural Heritage

Before anything is said about Central Europe, we have to clear up what we are talking about. The term “Central Europe” only went into widespread use in the first half of the 19th century, although it was completely general by the end, or at least by the start of the...

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The King Is Dead! Long Live the King!

The Hungarian Perspective[1] Ruler of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy Franz Joseph I, aged 86, died on November 21, 1916 in Schönbrunn. He was buried on November 30. On December 30 Charles, aged 29, was crowned king of Hungary in Budapest.   High Politics Outlook...

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The Altar of the Nation: The Millenium Monument in Budapest

The Millenium Monument in Budapest could not have come about without the convergence of three trends. First, there had to be a capital city — a place the dominant nationality in Hungary could consider its center. In other words, the institutionalized central location had to be created for the nation-religion. Second, the idea of some kind of national altar the function of which would be to represent the greatness and glory of the nation had to take shape within the political culture of the nation-religion. Third, the three-dimensional solution to realize and communicate the desired content had to be imagined, along international norms. Of course, all three requirements had to meet along the dimension of time.

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The National Dog

Today we are no longer surprised that a national character can also be attributed to animals that have been with us for a long time.

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Nationalities and the Hungarian Parliament (1867-1918)

It is widely thought that the system of tensions between nationalities was one of the fundamental problems of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. Scholars of this opinion believe that this could have been a reason for the Monarchy’s death even without the cataclysm of World War I. We do not know if they are right, because the Monarchy did not die of this in the end. Nevertheless, it is sure that the tensive force of problems related to nationalities increasingly pervaded the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy.

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The Symbolic Square

It is evident that there is a Kossuth Square, because there is a Parliament. The Parliament not only created the square but, by its dimensions and mass, gave it a structure.

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The following papers and my book’s chapters are offered as a taster of my professional output grouped around three subject areas:

The Austro-Hungarian Monarchy

Hungarian national identity, history and symbolic politics


Places of my professional work: